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Oct 1, 2013 · The behavior of hydrogen absorption in the NdFeB Hydrogen Decrepitation process is affected by the shape of the NdFeB alloy, pressure and temperature curves of the reaction process, which makes the reaction process with characteristics of nonlinear, time-varying parameters and coupling. In this study, we proposed a state space modeling method to describe the dynamic mechanism model of the ...

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May 5, 2017 · Typically, alloys are processed using the Hydrogen Decrepitation process (HD) [5], [6] where the cast NdFeB alloys are exposed to hydrogen at room temperature causing them to react exothermically, and consequently, decrepitating into a highly friable powder which can then be jet-milled, aligned, compressed and liquid phase sintered to form a ... Hydrogen decrepitation and recycling of NdFeB-type sintered magnets Zakotnik M, Devlin E, Harris IR, Williams AJ ... Environmental degradation of NdFeB magnets Yan GL, McGuiness PJ, Farr JPG, Harris IR Journal of Alloys and Compounds 2009;478:188-92 Oxidation of NdFeB-type magnets modified with additions of Co, Dy, Zr and V ...Nov 1, 2017 · Fig. 1. Illustration of the Hydrogen Decrepitation Press-Less Process (HD-PLP) recycling of anisotropic sintered NdFeB magnet. Passivated commercial N48M sintered magnets were used as starting material and hydrogen was applied to disintegrate the magnets inside a ball milling container. The hydride powder was both used directly and some powder ... High performance NdFeB permanent magnets are widely manufactured using the conventional powder metallurgy route involving distinct steps: alloy synthesis by strip casting, pulverization by hydrogen decrepitation and jet milling, shaping by compaction and sintering followed by annealing [32]. Every step of this manufacturing process has …For the second type, three popular techniques, hydrogen decrepitation (HD), HDDR, and MS are applied to produce magnetic powders with the waste magnets. Note that the resultant powders prepared from the three techniques are single crystal powders, textured polycrystalline powders, and random aligned polycrystalline powders, respectively. ...

Feb 1, 1997 · Hydrogen decrepitation of Nd-Fe-B type magnet alloys is a two stage process. Firstly, the hydrogen reacts with the Nd-rich phase at or close to room temperature. This is an exothermic reaction [4] and the heat evolved then allows the second stage to proceed in which the hydrogen is absorbed by the Nd^FeuB matrix phase. It should be noted that hydrogen already plays a vital role in the production of sintered NdFeB-type magnets [1].The bulk alloy absorbs around 0.4 wt.% of hydrogen during the initial decrepitation stage and this hydrogen is desorbed during the subsequent vacuum sintering.Every tonne of alloy produces around 40 cubic meters of hydrogen …

Hydrogen decrepitation (HD) process and re-sintering NdFeB magnet scrap recycling by processing it in hydrogen, then milling, aligning, pressing and re-sintering it [38–40] Although different methods for NdFeB magnet recycling have been reported in the literature, only one piece of technology has been applied in practice by the Urban MiningSep 14, 2000 · This way of powdering known as hydrogen decrepitation (HD) is a well-established stage of manufacturing technologies of sintered [2], [3] and bonded [4] Nd–Fe–B magnets. The interstitial hydrogen in the ferromagnetic Nd 2 Fe 14 B phase reduces significantly its anisotropy field H A. That is why desorption of hydrogen is necessary in order ...

Each magnet was exposed to hydrogen and the decrepitation behaviour observed. The anisotropic samples were found to decrepitate exclusively from the ends of the rods whereas the isotropic magnets were attacked by the hydrogen at all points on their surface. Bulk corrosion studies in steam gave comparable results, the oriented sample …The extracted NdFeB powder is of a purity whereby it can be re-processed into new magnetic materials or rare earth alloys. HyProMag Ltd will be targeting a wide range of end of life applications. Illustration of the HPMS process applied to the voice coil assembly of a hard disk drive. Pilot HPMS reactor capable of processing 5kg of NdFeB.The basic compound for most Neodymium magnets is Nd2Fe14B. In practice, the actual chemical reaction used can be more complicated. A commonly used reaction is: 57 Fe + 8 B + 10 Fe2O3 + 7.5 Nd2O3 ...Abstract. This paper reports the desorption of hydrogen from NdFeB powder, and unmilled material, produced using hydrogen decrepitation as a pre-milling technique, investigated using a mass spectrometer to monitor the hydrogen partial pressure in the system as the sample was heated under vacuum from room temperature to …

The extracted NdFeB powder is of a purity whereby it can be re-processed into new magnetic materials or rare earth alloys. HyProMag Ltd will be targeting a wide range of end of life applications. Illustration of the HPMS process applied to the voice coil assembly of a hard disk drive. Pilot HPMS reactor capable of processing 5kg of NdFeB.

Various efforts have been made in the past for direct recycling of spent NdFeB magnet using hydrogen decrepitation followed by resintering method (Zakotnik et al., 2009; Herraiz et al., 2016). In ...

(DOI: 10.1016/S0925-8388(99)00443-0) The corrosion and degradation of Nd–Fe–B magnets by hydrogen from moisture in the environment has been termed the Negative Harris Effect. In order to provide more information on this phenomenon, different density Nd–Fe–B magnets have been subjected to vacuum desorption, XRD and …Anisotropic powder was prepared with precursor (NdDy)-(FeCoNbCu)-B sintered magnets by hydrogen decrepitation, desorption, and subsequent annealing treatment. The hydrogen desorption was performed in magnetic fields of 0, 1, 3, and 5 T. The orientation of tetragonal phase grains of the powder was evaluated from the …Due to the high strength and very compact structure of sintered NdFeB magnets, hydrogen decrepitation is a necessary step to break down the magnet mass. On the other hand, the resin-bonded NdFeB magnets have very low strength and can be easily crushed by heating and removing the resin and epoxy used in their fabrication. 39. 3.Novel hydrogen decrepitation behaviors of (La, Ce)-Fe-B strips. Jiaying Jin G. Bai +4 authors M. Yan. ... Doping with Dy/Tb is a current solution to improve the coercivity and the operating temperature of NdFeB magnets, by increasing the magnetocrystalline anisotropy of the (Nd, Dy/Tb)2Fe14B (2:14:1) …May 5, 2023 · The first is the hydrogen decrepitation (HD) process, which is already used in the primary production of NdFeB magnets to convert the alloy into powder form before further comminution. 46 The second process, named HDDR, which consists of two different steps, namely hydrogenation–disproportionation (HD) and desorption–recombination (DR), was ... The Hydrogen Decrepitation process (HD) is used as an alternative method of powder preparation in the manufacturing process of sintered Nd Fe B magnets [ 1]. During the HD process a NdFeB-type material is hydrogenated by gaseous hydrogen at atmospheric (or elevated) pressure at room (or elevated) temperature.We ascribe the volume expansion during ATF aging to the incorporation of hydrogen dissociated from the organic liquid ATF into the melt-spun NdFeB powder. Hydrogen is known to diffuse into the Nd2Fe14B crystal structure [2–4] and occupy interstitial sites to form the isomorphic hydride Nd2Fe14BHx with up to x=5 H per formula …

Hydrogen decrepitation and recycling of NdFeB-type sintered magnets Zakotnik M, Devlin E, Harris IR, Williams AJ ... Environmental degradation of NdFeB magnets Yan GL, McGuiness PJ, Farr JPG, Harris IR Journal of Alloys and Compounds 2009;478:188-92 Oxidation of NdFeB-type magnets modified with additions of Co, Dy, Zr and V ...Abstract. Some fully dense, sintered NdFeB-type magnets (employed in VCM disc drives) have been subjected to a recycling process using the hydrogen decrepitation (HD) process. After a brief milling treatment, the powder was aligned, pressed and re-sintered and this procedure was repeated four times with a progressive fall in the density …Jan 1, 1991 · Abstract. In this paper we describe and discuss the use of hydrogen in the processing ofNdFeB-type magnets. The roles of hydrogen in the hydrogen decrepitation (HD) and hydrogenation, disproportionation, desorption and recombination (HDDR) processes are considered together with the characteristics of the magnets produced by these routes. Sep 14, 2000 · This way of powdering known as hydrogen decrepitation (HD) is a well-established stage of manufacturing technologies of sintered [2], [3] and bonded [4] Nd–Fe–B magnets. The interstitial hydrogen in the ferromagnetic Nd 2 Fe 14 B phase reduces significantly its anisotropy field H A. That is why desorption of hydrogen is necessary in order ... It should be noted that hydrogen already plays a vital role in the production of sintered NdFeB-type magnets [1].The bulk alloy absorbs around 0.4 wt.% of hydrogen during the initial decrepitation stage and this hydrogen is desorbed during the subsequent vacuum sintering.Every tonne of alloy produces around 40 cubic meters of hydrogen …

NdFeB ingot exposed to hydrogen atmosphere due to the changes of hydride lattice parameters cracks. The process called HDDR (Hydrogenation - Decrepitation -D...

NdFeB permanent magnets have different life cycles, depending on the applications: from as short as 2–3 years in consumer electronics to 20–30 years in wind turbines. The size of the magnets ranges from less than 1 g in small consumer electronics to about 1 kg in electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid and electric vehicles (HEVs), and can be …Another example of the coercivity recovery in crushed NdFeB-type sintered magnets was made by adding the DyF 3 salt [8]. Furthermore, the production of anisotropic RE–Fe–B–Cu powders have also been produced by hydrogen decrepitation of hot deformed ingots [9] followed by degassing.Jul 14, 2000 · The decrepitation process and related changes in the sample temperature are analysed to explain the experimentally observed weight gain curve of a Nd–Fe–B sample due to hydrogen uptake. It is shown that the expansion of the specific surface resulting from decrepitation of the sample is the most important parameter controlling the hydrogen ... At these elevated tempera- tures the decrepitation process proceeded rapidly and particles were ejected from the sample on all sides, V.A. Yartys et al. / Journal of Alloys and Compounds 239 (1996) 50-54 53 Fig. 2. Surface of a plate ejected from the [001 ] aligned sintered Nd16FeTaB8 magnet at the first stage of hydrogen decrepitation.In recent years, under the background of global low-carbon development, the production of NdFeB magnets has increased dramatically. With the end of magnet life, a large number of discarded products will be produced in the future. At the same time, 6–73% of industrial waste will be produced in the manufacturing process of magnets. The rare …The scrap sintered Nd–Fe–B magnets were recycled as the raw materials for bonded magnets using the hydrogen decrepitation (HD) process. The HD powders have the lowest oxygen and hydrogen content by hydrogenation at 150 °C with 1 bar H2 pressure and dehydrogenation at 600 °C. The powders with the largest particle size (>380 μm) …Hydrogen decrepitation process has been applied for the first time for the direct recycling of SmCo 5 magnets. Industrially produced sintered SmCo 5 magnets were decrepitated by hydrogen gas at a pressure of 1 bar to 9.5 bar at room temperature in a planetary rotating jar. After decrepitation, the starting sintered magnets were reduced to …The hydrogen decrepitation (HD) process are studied in detail based on these results. The hydrogen absorption mechanism of Sm(CoFeCuZr) 7.6 alloy can be regarded as a hydrogen dissolution process without phase transformation. In addition, the existence of a large amount of fine grains in the SC has an adverse effect on the …

The oxidation kinetics in air of a commercial NdFeB magnet have been investigated over the temperature range 335–500°C. The oxide microstructure has been characterized by SEM, XRD and cross-sectional TEM. The results show that the external scale formed consists of an outer layer of Fe2O3 and an inner layer of Fe3O4 but that the principal degradation …

Rare earth magnets based upon neodymium-iron-boron (NdFeB) are employed in many high tech applications, including h... Skip to main content. Sign In Create account . Journal Article OPEN ACCESS. THE USE OF THERMAL HYDROGEN DECREPITATION TO RECYCLE Nd-Fe-B MAGNETS FROM ELECTRONIC WASTE. Piotrowicz A; Pietrzyk S; …

Rare earth magnets based upon neodymium-iron-boron (NdFeB) are employed in many high tech applications, including h... Skip to main content. Sign In Create account . Journal Article OPEN ACCESS. THE USE OF THERMAL HYDROGEN DECREPITATION TO RECYCLE Nd-Fe-B MAGNETS FROM ELECTRONIC WASTE. Piotrowicz A; Pietrzyk S; …A bulk ingot of a Nd-Fe-B alloy has been powdered by a combination of hydrogen decrepitation and attritor milling. The powder was aligned and pressed in the hydrided condition and the green compact sintered at 1080‡ C for 1 h after an appropriate heating rate. Excellent densities were achieved after this procedure and the magnets produced …Apr 15, 2022 · An effective and complete processing route for the recycling of sintered Nd-Fe-B scrap magnets was proposed. Sintered Nd-Fe-B magnets were subjected to the Hydrogen Decrepitation (HD) process at various temperatures in the range of 50–300 °C, at two different pressures, 50 kPa and 200 kPa, followed by vacuum dehydrogenation in the range of 720–820 °C. Hydrogen Decrepitation and Recycling of NdFeB-type Sintered Magnets. Miha Zakotnik, E. Devlin, +1 author. A. Williams. Published 2006. Materials Science, Engineering. Journal of Iron and Steel Research International. View via Publisher. Save to Library.The hydrogen decrepitation (HD) process are studied in detail based on these results. The hydrogen absorption mechanism of Sm(CoFeCuZr) 7.6 alloy can be regarded as a hydrogen dissolution process without phase transformation. In addition, the existence of a large amount of fine grains in the SC has an adverse effect on the …Hydrogen decrepitation and recycling of NdFeB-type sintered magnets. M Zakotnik, E Devlin, IR Harris, AJ Williams. Journal of iron and steel research, international 13, 289-295, 2006. 57: 2006: Life cycle assessment of emerging technologies on value recovery from hard disk drives.Unfortunately, the contained NdFeB magnets break up into a friable magnetized powder which then sticks to the ferrous scrap and the shredder itself. A production-scale plant in Germany planned to go onstream in 2024 and a pilot plant launched a few months ago in the UK, expected to graduate to production-scale in 2023, …

Over the last ten years several groups have been carrying out research into metal injection moulding (MIM) of neodymium-iron-boron (NdFeB) powders to produce isotropic or …A high performance sintered NdFeB magnet with N52 was prepared by strip casting, hydrogen decrepitation, jet milling, rubber isostatic pressing with impulse magnetic field and vibrating. The structure of the magnet was investigated by XRD, optical microscope, TEM and SEM, and its demagnetization curve was tested by magnetograph. The results …Originated by Professor Rex Harris, the hydrogen decrepitation method, which is used to reduce NdFeB alloys to a powder, is now ubiquitously employed in worldwide magnet processing.A Hydrogen Decrepitation Press-Less Process (HD-PLP) recycling method for recycling of anisotropic NdFeB magnets is demonstrated. The method combines hydrogen decrepitation (HD) disintegration of the initial magnet, powder sieving and the Press-Less Process (PLP), where hydride powder is sintered in a graphite mold.Instagram:https://instagram. sandp global esg scoresatandt service center near melaser level lowepercent27slincoln ln 25 pro parts list (DOI: 10.1016/S0925-8388(99)00443-0) The corrosion and degradation of Nd–Fe–B magnets by hydrogen from moisture in the environment has been termed the Negative Harris Effect. In order to provide more information on this phenomenon, different density Nd–Fe–B magnets have been subjected to vacuum desorption, XRD and … mchenry car dealers.boost mobile cerca de mi During the hydrogenation process, a volume expansion takes place, which promotes the formation of transgranular and intergranular cracks, causing the breakup of the material [29].Fig. 1 shows the different types of fracture that can occur during the hydrogen decrepitation process. The hydrogenation of the grain boundary phase can lead to an … noe brooks funeral home and crematory inc Jan 1, 1991 · The subject of this paper is method (4) together with other aspects of the use of hydrogen in the processing of NdFeB-type magnets. 2. The hydrogen decrepitation process The manufacture of rare earth-transition metal magnets by the HD route was first proposed in a 1978 patent by Harris et al. [7]. As starting materials, magnets of different grades were used, which were processed by hydrogen decrepitation and blending the powder with NdH x. Composition inhomogeneity in the Nd 2 Fe 14 B-based magnetic phase grains in the recycled magnets and the existence of a core-shell structure consisting of a Nd-rich (Dy-depleted) core and …May 5, 2017 · Typically, alloys are processed using the Hydrogen Decrepitation process (HD) [5], [6] where the cast NdFeB alloys are exposed to hydrogen at room temperature causing them to react exothermically, and consequently, decrepitating into a highly friable powder which can then be jet-milled, aligned, compressed and liquid phase sintered to form a ...